The sequential mixed technique was used in this study. This method includes either a quantitative and qualitative (quant-qual) study or a qualitative and quantitative (qual-quant) research study. Combined method research studies present a practical world view. With this approach varied types of data are gathered which cause an understanding of the research study problem (Creswell 2009:18): The quant-qual research study starts with a broad survey in order to generalise outcomes to a population and after that, in a second phase, focuses on qualitative, open-ended interviews to gather detailed views from participants.
To adapt the survey material for the qualitative study, the items (or concerns) in the questionnaire were categorised by the researchers to form the styles or topics for the focus group conversations. A third aspect in the type of offered literature of primarily supply chain market associated reports and publications were incorporated to compare the findings.
The SASC members include mostly big freight owners and logistics service providers in South Africa. (Freight owners are involved in logistics activities for their own goods [cargo], and the service companies use logistics services to other organisations.) These cargo owners and company are faced daily with hurdles in business environment that affect their effectiveness, effectiveness, client service and ultimately the competitiveness of the entire supply chain (Badenhorst-Weiss & Waugh 2014:285).
Nineteen (19) business environment risk elements were determined and consisted of in the questionnaire. The survey was gone over with the researchers and a statistical consultant and improved numerous times prior to finalisation and was checked to ensure the validity of the instrument. The survey was conducted in 2013 amongst members of the SASC, the Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transportation in South Africa (CILTSA) and the Transport Forum (Badenhorst-Weiss & Waugh 2014:285).
Follow-up e-mails were sent out to increase the low reaction rate. Due to strict research ethics rules at the institution the scientists are connected to, the scientists could not use methods such as more emails, putting pressure on the people to respond or use rewards to increase the reaction rate. For that reason, regrettably, only 51 functional responses were gotten.
Regardless of the low reaction rate and the resultant predisposition it was chosen to continue with the recording of the information, since the findings of the survey formed just one of the inputs to the study. The finished questionnaires were looked for inconsistencies and omissions and the captured data was processed and evaluated utilizing SPSS (Badenhorst-Weiss & Waugh 2014:285).
Naslund (2002) stated that logistics scientists also need to do qualitative studies: 'Furthermore, if we truly desire to establish logistics, to establish new theories and concepts, then we require to question our paradigms, methodologies and option of approaches.' The qualitative study was performed by ways of a focus group discussion - Find accountant consulting South African.
A focus group is defined by Cooper and Schindler (2008) as: [t] he simultaneous involvement of a small number of research individuals (normally 8 to 10) who interact at the instructions of a mediator to create data on a specific concern or topic, commonly used in explorative studies and usually last 90 minutes to two hours (Search for audit report nearby).
704) According to Cooper and Schindler (2011:162), the sample style of a qualitative research study can be non-probability or purposive and the sample size small. With non-probability or purposive sampling not all the individuals in the population will get an equal chance to be picked (Zikmund et al. 2013:392). This indicates that scientists have the flexibility to select participants subjectively, that is, each member of the population does not have a known possibility of being included (Cooper & Schindler 2008:379). "However because the knock-on effect is felt in several layers in the supply chain, I think there'll be a fair bit of Tier 1 to Tier 3 provider mapping post-COVID." When manufacturing business have done the mapping, it may be clear that they're too reliant on particular suppliers or specific areas.
( It's similar to customers might have a back-up store to get items they require.) "As COVID-19 began to rear its unsightly head, we started to feel the impact in your area because of the physical stock that was coming out of the Far East," Linnell says. "That was a known risk that began to affect the supply chains for a great deal of companies in South Africa.
So that was among the strategies." Under typical situations, it takes some time for manufacturing companies to onboard new suppliers. However on the planet of COVID-19, some business were so desperate to get stock that they were partnering with providers that put them at risk. In many cases, there was carelessness that caused quality control problems or straight-out scams that cost business (and federal governments) millions.
" For some of the pharmaceutical business, there's undoubtedly been a huge demand for products (masks, ventilators, and so on). But they could not stay up to date with the need for what was required so they were trying to find numerous suppliers all over the place. Sadly, breakdowns in the procurement procedures were inevitable." To prevent this sort of disturbance during the COVID-19 pandemic, making companies should do more detailed research study into their providers.
It has to do with understanding who your suppliers are, what products or services they offer, and how reliant you are on them. As soon as you've 'run the risk of ranked' them, you can put mitigating controls in location. "Look at numerous methods for your different providers based on products, services, and threat exposure," Linnell says. "If it's an important single source supplier to put it simply, I can just get an element from them and not from anybody else then usually we put in place service level arrangement provisions that state that the supplier needs to make an alternate strategy to guarantee services to the organisation.
Once they've provided that information, we can understand the wider impact." If a supplier can't satisfy their contract, due to COVID-19 or any other factor, it is necessary to know this. Unfortunately, many production companies have a problem with reporting. They might sign up an event however not have the ability to completely understand how it affects the whole company (Looking for south african banks nearby) (Find business strategies South African).
" For example, if a manufacturing business has a basic material problem, it tends to remain in that department. It does not get aggregated up or intensified as a danger. Worse, business are reverting to antiquated Excel-based reporting when they should be utilizing advanced supply chain mapping software that can portray the interdependencies." Indeed, with all the improvements in innovation from huge information and expert system to innovative analytics and the ' Web of Things' now is a good time for business to learn more about the new tools that could make things easier during COVID-19 and beyond.