The sequential mixed method was utilized in this study. This method includes either a quantitative and qualitative (quant-qual) research study or a qualitative and quantitative (qual-quant) study. Blended method research studies present a practical world view. With this method diverse kinds of data are gathered which lead to an understanding of the research issue (Creswell 2009:18): The quant-qual research study starts with a broad study in order to generalise outcomes to a population and after that, in a 2nd phase, concentrates on qualitative, open-ended interviews to collect detailed views from individuals.
To adapt the questionnaire content for the qualitative study, the items (or questions) in the survey were categorised by the researchers to form the styles or topics for the focus group conversations. A third element in the form of readily available literature of primarily supply chain market related reports and magazines were incorporated to compare the findings.
The SASC members include mainly big cargo owners and logistics service providers in South Africa. (Cargo owners are included in logistics activities for their own goods [freight], and the provider provide logistics services to other organisations.) These freight owners and service companies are confronted daily with hurdles in the service environment that influence their performance, effectiveness, customer service and ultimately the competitiveness of the entire supply chain (Badenhorst-Weiss & Waugh 2014:285).
Nineteen (19) company environment threat elements were determined and consisted of in the survey. The survey was discussed with the scientists and a statistical consultant and boosted a number of times prior to finalisation and was checked to ensure the validity of the instrument. The study was carried out in 2013 among members of the SASC, the Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport in South Africa (CILTSA) and the Transportation Online Forum (Badenhorst-Weiss & Waugh 2014:285).
Follow-up e-mails were sent to increase the low action rate. Due to strict research study principles guidelines at the institution the researchers are connected to, the scientists might not use approaches such as additional emails, putting pressure on the people to respond or use incentives to increase the action rate. For that reason, unfortunately, just 51 functional reactions were received.
In spite of the low action rate and the resultant bias it was chosen to continue with the recording of the data, because the findings of the survey formed just one of the inputs to the study. The completed surveys were examined for inconsistencies and omissions and the captured information was processed and analysed utilizing SPSS (Badenhorst-Weiss & Waugh 2014:285).
Naslund (2002) mentioned that logistics scientists likewise require to do qualitative studies: 'In addition, if we really wish to establish logistics, to establish brand-new theories and ideas, then we need to question our paradigms, methodologies and option of techniques.' The qualitative study was performed by means of a focus group conversation - Our internal auditors South African.
A focus group is defined by Cooper and Schindler (2008) as: [t] he simultaneous participation of a small number of research study individuals (usually 8 to 10) who communicate at the instructions of a moderator to produce data on a particular issue or topic, widely used in explorative research studies and generally last 90 minutes to two hours (Search for financial analysis near me).
704) According to Cooper and Schindler (2011:162), the sample design of a qualitative research study can be non-probability or purposive and the sample size small. With non-probability or purposive tasting not all the individuals in the population will get an equivalent possibility to be selected (Zikmund et al. 2013:392). This implies that scientists have the freedom to pick individuals subjectively, that is, each member of the population does not have a known possibility of being included (Cooper & Schindler 2008:379). "But since the knock-on impact is felt in multiple layers in the supply chain, I believe there'll be a fair bit of Tier 1 to Tier 3 provider mapping post-COVID." Once producing business have done the mapping, it may be clear that they're too reliant on particular providers or particular regions.
( It's similar to consumers may have a back-up shop to get products they require.) "As COVID-19 began to rear its unsightly head, we started to feel the effect in your area due to the fact that of the physical stock that was coming out of the Far East," Linnell says. "That was a known danger that started to impact the supply chains for a lot of business in South Africa.
So that was among the techniques." Under typical scenarios, it takes some time for manufacturing companies to onboard new suppliers. But worldwide of COVID-19, some business were so desperate to get stock that they were partnering with providers that put them at threat. In many cases, there was carelessness that caused quality assurance concerns or straight-out fraud that cost business (and governments) millions.
" For some of the pharmaceutical companies, there's clearly been a massive demand for products (masks, ventilators, and so on). But they couldn't stay up to date with the demand for what was needed so they were trying to find numerous suppliers all over the place. Unfortunately, breakdowns in the procurement procedures were unavoidable." To prevent this type of interruption during the COVID-19 pandemic, manufacturing business ought to do more in-depth research study into their providers.
It's about knowing who your suppliers are, what service or products they provide, and how reliant you are on them. As soon as you've 'risk rated' them, you can put mitigating controls in place. "Look at numerous techniques for your different providers based on items, services, and risk direct exposure," Linnell states. "If it's a crucial single source provider simply put, I can just get a part from them and not from anyone else then typically we put in place service level agreement clauses that state that the supplier must make an alternate plan to guarantee services to the organisation.
Once they have actually provided that information, we can understand the more comprehensive impact." If a supplier can't satisfy their arrangement, due to COVID-19 or any other reason, it is necessary to know this. Sadly, numerous production companies have a problem with reporting. They might register an occurrence however not be able to totally comprehend how it affects the whole business (Browse for telecommunication industries near you) (Number one african opportunities South Africa).
" For example, if a manufacturing business has a basic material problem, it tends to remain in that department. It doesn't get aggregated up or intensified as a risk. Worse, business are reverting to archaic Excel-based reporting when they need to be using advanced supply chain mapping software application that can illustrate the interdependencies." Indeed, with all the improvements in technology from big data and expert system to advanced analytics and the ' Web of Things' now is a good time for business to discover about the new tools that could make things much easier throughout COVID-19 and beyond.