The sequential combined technique was used in this study. This technique consists of either a quantitative and qualitative (quant-qual) research study or a qualitative and quantitative (qual-quant) study. Mixed approach research studies provide a pragmatic world view. With this approach diverse kinds of data are gathered which cause an understanding of the research study issue (Creswell 2009:18): The quant-qual research study starts with a broad survey in order to generalise outcomes to a population and then, in a 2nd stage, focuses on qualitative, open-ended interviews to collect in-depth views from participants.
To adapt the questionnaire material for the qualitative study, the items (or concerns) in the survey were categorised by the scientists to form the themes or subjects for the focus group discussions. A third component in the kind of offered literature of generally supply chain industry related reports and magazines were integrated to compare the findings.
The SASC members include primarily large cargo owners and logistics service suppliers in South Africa. (Cargo owners are associated with logistics activities for their own items [freight], and the company use logistics services to other organisations.) These cargo owners and provider are challenged daily with obstacles in the company environment that affect their effectiveness, effectiveness, client service and ultimately the competitiveness of the entire supply chain (Badenhorst-Weiss & Waugh 2014:285).
Nineteen (19) company environment risk elements were determined and consisted of in the questionnaire. The questionnaire was gone over with the researchers and an analytical expert and boosted a number of times prior to finalisation and was tested to guarantee the credibility of the instrument. The survey was conducted in 2013 amongst members of the SASC, the Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport in South Africa (CILTSA) and the Transport Forum (Badenhorst-Weiss & Waugh 2014:285).
Follow-up emails were sent out to increase the low reaction rate. Due to stringent research principles rules at the organization the scientists are connected to, the scientists might not use techniques such as further e-mails, putting pressure on the individuals to respond or use rewards to increase the response rate. Therefore, sadly, just 51 usable responses were gotten.
Regardless of the low action rate and the resultant bias it was decided to continue with the capturing of the data, because the findings of the survey formed only one of the inputs to the research study. The completed surveys were looked for disparities and omissions and the recorded data was processed and analysed utilizing SPSS (Badenhorst-Weiss & Waugh 2014:285).
Naslund (2002) specified that logistics scientists also require to do qualitative research studies: 'Additionally, if we genuinely wish to develop logistics, to develop new theories and ideas, then we require to question our paradigms, approaches and option of approaches.' The qualitative research study was performed by means of a focus group discussion - My international accounting standard South African.
A focus group is defined by Cooper and Schindler (2008) as: [t] he synchronised involvement of a little number of research individuals (generally 8 to 10) who communicate at the instructions of a mediator to create data on a particular concern or subject, widely used in explorative research studies and usually last 90 minutes to two hours (Search for tax for small business near you).
704) According to Cooper and Schindler (2011:162), the sample design of a qualitative research study can be non-probability or purposive and the sample size small. With non-probability or purposive tasting not all the people in the population will get an equivalent opportunity to be chosen (Zikmund et al. 2013:392). This indicates that scientists have the liberty to select individuals subjectively, that is, each member of the population does not have a known possibility of being included (Cooper & Schindler 2008:379). "But due to the fact that the knock-on impact is felt in several layers in the supply chain, I think there'll be rather a bit of Tier 1 to Tier 3 provider mapping post-COVID." Once producing companies have actually done the mapping, it may be clear that they're too reliant on specific suppliers or specific regions.
( It's similar to consumers might have a back-up store to get products they require.) "As COVID-19 started to rear its ugly head, we started to feel the effect in your area because of the physical stock that was coming out of the Far East," Linnell states. "That was a recognized danger that began to affect the supply chains for a lot of business in South Africa.
So that was among the techniques." Under typical scenarios, it requires time for manufacturing business to onboard brand-new suppliers. But in the world of COVID-19, some business were so desperate to get stock that they were partnering with providers that put them at danger. Sometimes, there was neglect that triggered quality assurance issues or straight-out scams that cost business (and federal governments) millions.
" For a few of the pharmaceutical business, there's undoubtedly been an enormous demand for materials (masks, ventilators, and so on). But they couldn't stay up to date with the demand for what was required so they were searching for several providers all over the place. Regrettably, breakdowns in the procurement processes were inevitable." To prevent this type of interruption during the COVID-19 pandemic, manufacturing companies should do more comprehensive research into their providers.
It has to do with understanding who your providers are, what services or products they provide, and how reliant you are on them. Once you have actually 'risk rated' them, you can put mitigating controls in location. "Look at numerous methods for your various providers based upon products, services, and threat exposure," Linnell states. "If it's an important single source provider in other words, I can just get a component from them and not from anyone else then typically we put in location service level contract stipulations that specify that the vendor must make an alternate plan to make sure services to the organisation.
Once they've supplied that information, we can understand the wider effect." If a supplier can't meet their arrangement, due to COVID-19 or any other reason, it's important to understand this. Sadly, numerous production companies have a problem with reporting. They might register an occurrence however not be able to completely comprehend how it affects the whole business (Browse for auditing companies near you) (Best auditor South Africa).
" For instance, if a producing company has a raw material concern, it tends to remain in that department. It does not get aggregated up or escalated as a danger. Worse, business are reverting to antiquated Excel-based reporting when they should be utilizing more innovative supply chain mapping software that can portray the interdependencies." Undoubtedly, with all the improvements in innovation from big information and synthetic intelligence to sophisticated analytics and the ' Internet of Things' now is a fun time for business to discover the brand-new tools that could make things much easier during COVID-19 and beyond.