The sequential mixed approach was used in this study. This approach includes either a quantitative and qualitative (quant-qual) study or a qualitative and quantitative (qual-quant) study. Combined method studies provide a pragmatic world view. With this approach varied types of data are gathered which result in an understanding of the research study issue (Creswell 2009:18): The quant-qual research study begins with a broad study in order to generalise outcomes to a population and then, in a second phase, focuses on qualitative, open-ended interviews to gather detailed views from participants.
To adjust the survey content for the qualitative research study, the products (or questions) in the survey were categorised by the scientists to form the themes or subjects for the focus group conversations. A 3rd element in the kind of offered literature of generally supply chain industry related reports and magazines were incorporated to compare the findings.
The SASC members include primarily large cargo owners and logistics company in South Africa. (Freight owners are involved in logistics activities for their own items [cargo], and the service companies provide logistics services to other organisations.) These freight owners and company are confronted daily with hurdles in business environment that affect their effectiveness, efficiency, customer support and eventually the competitiveness of the entire supply chain (Badenhorst-Weiss & Waugh 2014:285).
Nineteen (19) business environment threat elements were identified and included in the survey. The questionnaire was gone over with the researchers and a statistical consultant and enhanced several times prior to finalisation and was tested to ensure the credibility of the instrument. The study was carried out in 2013 among members of the SASC, the Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport in South Africa (CILTSA) and the Transportation Online Forum (Badenhorst-Weiss & Waugh 2014:285).
Follow-up e-mails were sent to increase the low response rate. Due to strict research ethics guidelines at the organization the researchers are connected to, the researchers might not use techniques such as further emails, putting pressure on the people to react or offer incentives to increase the response rate. Therefore, unfortunately, only 51 functional reactions were received.
Despite the low response rate and the resultant predisposition it was chosen to continue with the capturing of the information, considering that the findings of the survey formed only one of the inputs to the study. The completed questionnaires were looked for disparities and omissions and the caught data was processed and evaluated using SPSS (Badenhorst-Weiss & Waugh 2014:285).
Naslund (2002) mentioned that logistics scientists also need to do qualitative studies: 'Additionally, if we truly want to establish logistics, to establish new theories and ideas, then we require to question our paradigms, methodologies and choice of techniques.' The qualitative research study was conducted by ways of a focus group discussion - My financial accounts South Africa.
A focus group is defined by Cooper and Schindler (2008) as: [t] he simultaneous participation of a small number of research study individuals (generally 8 to 10) who communicate at the direction of a mediator to create information on a specific problem or subject, commonly utilized in explorative studies and generally last 90 minutes to 2 hours (Browse for Anti-money laundering near you).
704) According to Cooper and Schindler (2011:162), the sample design of a qualitative study can be non-probability or purposive and the sample size small. With non-probability or purposive tasting not all the individuals in the population will get an equivalent opportunity to be selected (Zikmund et al. 2013:392). This indicates that scientists have the freedom to choose participants subjectively, that is, each member of the population does not have a recognized chance of being included (Cooper & Schindler 2008:379). "But because the knock-on effect is felt in multiple layers in the supply chain, I think there'll be a fair bit of Tier 1 to Tier 3 provider mapping post-COVID." Once producing companies have actually done the mapping, it might be clear that they're too reliant on particular suppliers or specific areas.
( It's just like customers might have a back-up shop to get products they require.) "As COVID-19 started to rear its ugly head, we started to feel the impact in your area due to the fact that of the physical stock that was coming out of the Far East," Linnell states. "That was a recognized risk that began to impact the supply chains for a great deal of business in South Africa.
So that was one of the methods." Under normal scenarios, it takes some time for making business to onboard brand-new suppliers. But in the world of COVID-19, some companies were so desperate to get stock that they were partnering with suppliers that put them at threat. Sometimes, there was carelessness that caused quality assurance concerns or outright fraud that cost companies (and federal governments) millions.
" For a few of the pharmaceutical companies, there's undoubtedly been an enormous need for products (masks, ventilators, and so on). However they couldn't stay up to date with the demand for what was required so they were trying to find multiple suppliers all over the location. Regrettably, breakdowns in the procurement procedures were unavoidable." To prevent this sort of disturbance during the COVID-19 pandemic, making companies should do more comprehensive research study into their suppliers.
It's about knowing who your suppliers are, what service or products they offer, and how dependent you are on them. As soon as you have actually 'risk ranked' them, you can put mitigating controls in location. "Look at different strategies for your different providers based on products, services, and danger exposure," Linnell states. "If it's an important single source provider to put it simply, I can just get an element from them and not from anybody else then normally we put in location service level agreement provisions that stipulate that the vendor should make an alternate plan to guarantee services to the organisation.
Once they have actually provided that information, we can understand the broader effect." If a supplier can't satisfy their agreement, due to COVID-19 or any other reason, it is essential to understand this. Sadly, lots of production business have an issue with reporting. They may register an occurrence but not have the ability to totally comprehend how it affects the entire company (Browse for south africa hotels near you) (Our south african business opportunities South African).
" For instance, if a producing business has a basic material concern, it tends to remain in that department. It does not get aggregated up or intensified as a threat. Worse, companies are reverting to archaic Excel-based reporting when they need to be using more innovative supply chain mapping software application that can illustrate the interdependencies." Indeed, with all the improvements in technology from big data and synthetic intelligence to innovative analytics and the ' Web of Things' now is a fun time for companies to find out about the brand-new tools that could make things much easier throughout COVID-19 and beyond.