The sequential combined approach was used in this study. This technique includes either a quantitative and qualitative (quant-qual) research study or a qualitative and quantitative (qual-quant) research study. Combined technique research studies provide a pragmatic world view. With this technique diverse kinds of data are collected which result in an understanding of the research study problem (Creswell 2009:18): The quant-qual study begins with a broad study in order to generalise outcomes to a population and then, in a second stage, concentrates on qualitative, open-ended interviews to gather comprehensive views from participants.
To adapt the survey content for the qualitative study, the items (or questions) in the survey were categorised by the researchers to form the themes or subjects for the focus group discussions. A 3rd component in the kind of readily available literature of mainly supply chain market associated reports and publications were incorporated to compare the findings.
The SASC members consist of mainly large freight owners and logistics provider in South Africa. (Cargo owners are associated with logistics activities for their own goods [cargo], and the company provide logistics services to other organisations.) These freight owners and service suppliers are confronted daily with difficulties in business environment that influence their performance, efficiency, customer care and eventually the competitiveness of the entire supply chain (Badenhorst-Weiss & Waugh 2014:285).
Nineteen (19) business environment threat factors were recognized and included in the questionnaire. The questionnaire was talked about with the researchers and a statistical specialist and boosted numerous times prior to finalisation and was evaluated to make sure the validity of the instrument. The study was carried out in 2013 among members of the SASC, the Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transportation in South Africa (CILTSA) and the Transportation Online Forum (Badenhorst-Weiss & Waugh 2014:285).
Follow-up e-mails were sent out to increase the low action rate. Due to rigorous research principles rules at the institution the researchers are attached to, the scientists might not use methods such as additional emails, putting pressure on the people to react or provide incentives to increase the action rate. For that reason, unfortunately, just 51 functional reactions were received.
Regardless of the low response rate and the resultant predisposition it was decided to continue with the recording of the data, because the findings of the study formed just one of the inputs to the study. The finished surveys were looked for disparities and omissions and the caught data was processed and evaluated using SPSS (Badenhorst-Weiss & Waugh 2014:285).
Naslund (2002) specified that logistics scientists likewise require to do qualitative studies: 'Furthermore, if we genuinely wish to establish logistics, to establish brand-new theories and ideas, then we need to question our paradigms, approaches and option of techniques.' The qualitative study was conducted by methods of a focus group discussion - Our code of ethics Africa.
A focus group is defined by Cooper and Schindler (2008) as: [t] he simultaneous involvement of a little number of research study individuals (usually 8 to 10) who connect at the direction of a mediator to create data on a specific problem or topic, widely used in explorative research studies and typically last 90 minutes to 2 hours (Search for south africa hotels nearby).
704) According to Cooper and Schindler (2011:162), the sample style of a qualitative study can be non-probability or purposive and the sample size little. With non-probability or purposive sampling not all the people in the population will get an equal possibility to be picked (Zikmund et al. 2013:392). This suggests that scientists have the flexibility to select participants subjectively, that is, each member of the population does not have a recognized possibility of being included (Cooper & Schindler 2008:379). "But due to the fact that the knock-on impact is felt in numerous layers in the supply chain, I believe there'll be a fair bit of Tier 1 to Tier 3 supplier mapping post-COVID." Once producing business have done the mapping, it might be clear that they're too reliant on specific suppliers or particular areas.
( It's similar to customers may have a back-up shop to get products they need.) "As COVID-19 started to rear its ugly head, we began to feel the impact in your area because of the physical stock that was coming out of the Far East," Linnell says. "That was a recognized risk that began to affect the supply chains for a great deal of business in South Africa.
So that was among the methods." Under normal situations, it takes some time for manufacturing companies to onboard new vendors. But worldwide of COVID-19, some companies were so desperate to get stock that they were partnering with providers that put them at threat. In many cases, there was carelessness that caused quality assurance issues or outright scams that cost business (and governments) millions.
" For a few of the pharmaceutical companies, there's clearly been an enormous need for products (masks, ventilators, and so on). However they couldn't keep up with the demand for what was needed so they were trying to find several suppliers all over the location. Unfortunately, breakdowns in the procurement processes were inevitable." To avoid this sort of interruption throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, making companies must do more detailed research into their providers.
It's about understanding who your providers are, what services or products they supply, and how dependent you are on them. Once you have actually 'run the risk of rated' them, you can put mitigating controls in location. "Look at numerous techniques for your various suppliers based on items, services, and danger direct exposure," Linnell states. "If it's an important single source supplier simply put, I can only get a component from them and not from anyone else then generally we put in place service level agreement stipulations that state that the vendor must make an alternate strategy to ensure services to the organisation.
Once they've supplied that info, we can comprehend the broader impact." If a provider can't fulfill their agreement, due to COVID-19 or any other reason, it is essential to understand this. Unfortunately, many manufacturing companies have a problem with reporting. They might register an occurrence but not have the ability to completely comprehend how it affects the whole company (Browse for Anti-Money Laundering nearby) (Best internal auditor South Africa).
" For instance, if a making business has a raw material concern, it tends to stay in that department. It doesn't get aggregated up or escalated as a threat. Worse, companies are reverting to archaic Excel-based reporting when they should be using advanced supply chain mapping software that can depict the interdependencies." Indeed, with all the advancements in technology from big data and expert system to advanced analytics and the ' Web of Things' now is a terrific time for companies to find out about the brand-new tools that could make things easier during COVID-19 and beyond.