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The sequential combined approach was utilized in this research study. This approach includes either a quantitative and qualitative (quant-qual) research study or a qualitative and quantitative (qual-quant) study. Mixed method research studies present a practical world view. With this approach diverse types of information are gathered which cause an understanding of the research problem (Creswell 2009:18): The quant-qual research study begins with a broad survey in order to generalise outcomes to a population and then, in a second stage, concentrates on qualitative, open-ended interviews to collect in-depth views from individuals.

To adapt the survey content for the qualitative study, the products (or questions) in the survey were categorised by the researchers to form the themes or subjects for the focus group conversations. A third component in the type of available literature of primarily supply chain market associated reports and magazines were incorporated to compare the findings.

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The SASC members include mainly big cargo owners and logistics provider in South Africa. (Cargo owners are associated with logistics activities for their own items [cargo], and the service companies use logistics services to other organisations.) These cargo owners and company are challenged daily with obstacles in business environment that affect their effectiveness, efficiency, consumer service and eventually the competitiveness of the whole supply chain (Badenhorst-Weiss & Waugh 2014:285).

Nineteen (19) service environment danger elements were determined and consisted of in the questionnaire. The questionnaire was gone over with the scientists and a statistical expert and improved numerous times before finalisation and was tested to make sure the credibility of the instrument. The study was conducted in 2013 among members of the SASC, the Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transportation in South Africa (CILTSA) and the Transportation Forum (Badenhorst-Weiss & Waugh 2014:285).

Follow-up e-mails were sent to increase the low response rate. Due to stringent research ethics rules at the institution the scientists are connected to, the scientists might not use approaches such as additional emails, putting pressure on the people to respond or use rewards to increase the action rate. For that reason, regrettably, only 51 functional reactions were received.

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In spite of the low action rate and the resultant bias it was decided to continue with the catching of the information, given that the findings of the study formed just one of the inputs to the research study. The completed surveys were looked for inconsistencies and omissions and the caught data was processed and analysed using SPSS (Badenhorst-Weiss & Waugh 2014:285).

Naslund (2002) specified that logistics researchers also require to do qualitative studies: 'Moreover, if we truly desire to develop logistics, to establish brand-new theories and concepts, then we need to question our paradigms, methodologies and option of methods.' The qualitative study was conducted by methods of a focus group discussion - Find short term insurance Africa.

A focus group is defined by Cooper and Schindler (2008) as: [t] he simultaneous participation of a little number of research participants (generally 8 to 10) who engage at the instructions of a mediator to generate data on a specific problem or topic, commonly utilized in explorative research studies and generally last 90 minutes to 2 hours (View our global tax management near you).

704) According to Cooper and Schindler (2011:162), the sample style of a qualitative study can be non-probability or purposive and the sample size little. With non-probability or purposive sampling not all the individuals in the population will get an equivalent possibility to be chosen (Zikmund et al. 2013:392). This implies that researchers have the freedom to pick participants subjectively, that is, each member of the population does not have a known possibility of being consisted of (Cooper & Schindler 2008:379). "However due to the fact that the knock-on impact is felt in several layers in the supply chain, I think there'll be rather a bit of Tier 1 to Tier 3 supplier mapping post-COVID." Once manufacturing companies have done the mapping, it might be clear that they're too reliant on particular suppliers or particular regions.

( It's just like customers may have a back-up store to get products they need.) "As COVID-19 began to rear its awful head, we began to feel the effect in your area due to the fact that of the physical stock that was coming out of the Far East," Linnell says. "That was a known danger that started to impact the supply chains for a lot of business in South Africa.

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So that was one of the methods." Under regular situations, it takes some time for manufacturing business to onboard new suppliers. But on the planet of COVID-19, some business were so desperate to get stock that they were partnering with providers that put them at danger. Sometimes, there was negligence that caused quality assurance issues or straight-out fraud that cost companies (and federal governments) millions.

" For a few of the pharmaceutical business, there's clearly been a massive demand for supplies (masks, ventilators, and so on). However they could not stay up to date with the need for what was needed so they were searching for numerous providers all over the location. Unfortunately, breakdowns in the procurement procedures were unavoidable." To prevent this sort of disruption throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, making companies ought to do more in-depth research study into their providers.

It has to do with knowing who your suppliers are, what services or products they offer, and how reliant you are on them. Once you've 'risk ranked' them, you can put mitigating controls in location. "Look at numerous techniques for your various suppliers based on products, services, and threat direct exposure," Linnell says. "If it's a vital single source supplier to put it simply, I can only get an element from them and not from anyone else then typically we put in location service level arrangement stipulations that stipulate that the supplier must make an alternate strategy to ensure services to the organisation.

Once they've provided that info, we can comprehend the more comprehensive effect." If a supplier can't satisfy their contract, due to COVID-19 or any other reason, it's crucial to understand this. Regrettably, numerous production business have an issue with reporting. They might sign up an occurrence but not be able to completely understand how it affects the entire business (Browse for forensic accounting near me) (Find chartered accountants Africa).

" For example, if a manufacturing business has a basic material problem, it tends to stay in that department. It doesn't get aggregated up or intensified as a risk. Worse, companies are reverting to archaic Excel-based reporting when they ought to be utilizing more sophisticated supply chain mapping software that can depict the interdependencies." Undoubtedly, with all the developments in technology from big information and synthetic intelligence to advanced analytics and the ' Internet of Things' now is a good time for business to find out about the brand-new tools that could make things much easier during COVID-19 and beyond.