The sequential combined technique was utilized in this study. This method includes either a quantitative and qualitative (quant-qual) research study or a qualitative and quantitative (qual-quant) research study. Combined method studies present a practical world view. With this method varied types of information are gathered which lead to an understanding of the research issue (Creswell 2009:18): The quant-qual study starts with a broad study in order to generalise results to a population and after that, in a second stage, focuses on qualitative, open-ended interviews to gather in-depth views from individuals.
To adapt the questionnaire material for the qualitative research study, the items (or concerns) in the questionnaire were categorised by the scientists to form the themes or topics for the focus group discussions. A third component in the form of readily available literature of primarily supply chain market related reports and magazines were integrated to compare the findings.
The SASC members consist of mostly large freight owners and logistics service companies in South Africa. (Freight owners are included in logistics activities for their own goods [freight], and the company offer logistics services to other organisations.) These freight owners and provider are challenged daily with hurdles in the business environment that affect their efficiency, efficiency, client service and eventually the competitiveness of the entire supply chain (Badenhorst-Weiss & Waugh 2014:285).
Nineteen (19) organisation environment risk factors were determined and included in the survey. The questionnaire was talked about with the scientists and a statistical specialist and enhanced several times prior to finalisation and was evaluated to make sure the credibility of the instrument. The study was carried out in 2013 amongst members of the SASC, the Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport in South Africa (CILTSA) and the Transport Forum (Badenhorst-Weiss & Waugh 2014:285).
Follow-up e-mails were sent to increase the low response rate. Due to stringent research principles rules at the institution the researchers are connected to, the researchers could not utilize techniques such as additional emails, putting pressure on the people to respond or provide rewards to increase the reaction rate. For that reason, unfortunately, only 51 usable actions were gotten.
Despite the low reaction rate and the resultant predisposition it was decided to continue with the recording of the data, since the findings of the survey formed only one of the inputs to the research study. The finished surveys were examined for disparities and omissions and the caught data was processed and analysed using SPSS (Badenhorst-Weiss & Waugh 2014:285).
Naslund (2002) specified that logistics scientists likewise require to do qualitative research studies: 'Moreover, if we genuinely wish to establish logistics, to develop brand-new theories and ideas, then we require to question our paradigms, methods and choice of methods.' The qualitative study was carried out by ways of a focus group discussion - Find south african banks South African.
A focus group is specified by Cooper and Schindler (2008) as: [t] he simultaneous participation of a little number of research study individuals (normally 8 to 10) who communicate at the direction of a mediator to create information on a particular problem or topic, commonly used in explorative research studies and normally last 90 minutes to 2 hours (View our tax and accounting service near me).
704) According to Cooper and Schindler (2011:162), the sample design of a qualitative research study can be non-probability or purposive and the sample size little. With non-probability or purposive sampling not all the individuals in the population will get an equivalent opportunity to be picked (Zikmund et al. 2013:392). This suggests that researchers have the freedom to pick individuals subjectively, that is, each member of the population does not have a recognized possibility of being included (Cooper & Schindler 2008:379). "However due to the fact that the knock-on impact is felt in multiple layers in the supply chain, I think there'll be quite a bit of Tier 1 to Tier 3 supplier mapping post-COVID." When manufacturing business have done the mapping, it may be clear that they're too reliant on specific providers or specific areas.
( It's just like consumers might have a back-up shop to get products they require.) "As COVID-19 began to rear its ugly head, we started to feel the effect in your area due to the fact that of the physical stock that was coming out of the Far East," Linnell says. "That was a recognized threat that started to impact the supply chains for a lot of business in South Africa.
So that was among the methods." Under regular scenarios, it takes some time for making companies to onboard new suppliers. But in the world of COVID-19, some companies were so desperate to get stock that they were partnering with suppliers that put them at danger. In some cases, there was carelessness that caused quality control issues or straight-out fraud that cost business (and federal governments) millions.
" For a few of the pharmaceutical companies, there's undoubtedly been a massive demand for materials (masks, ventilators, and so on). But they couldn't stay up to date with the need for what was required so they were searching for several providers all over the location. Sadly, breakdowns in the procurement procedures were inevitable." To prevent this type of disruption throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, producing companies ought to do more detailed research into their suppliers.
It's about knowing who your providers are, what services or products they provide, and how reliant you are on them. When you have actually 'risk rated' them, you can put mitigating controls in place. "Look at different techniques for your various providers based upon products, services, and threat exposure," Linnell says. "If it's a crucial single source provider in other words, I can just get a part from them and not from anyone else then normally we put in place service level contract clauses that state that the vendor must make an alternate plan to ensure services to the organisation.
Once they have actually supplied that info, we can comprehend the more comprehensive impact." If a supplier can't satisfy their contract, due to COVID-19 or any other reason, it is necessary to understand this. Regrettably, many manufacturing business have a concern with reporting. They might sign up an event but not be able to totally understand how it impacts the whole organisation (View our external auditor nearby) (Find financial accounts Africa).
" For example, if a making company has a raw product concern, it tends to remain in that department. It doesn't get aggregated up or intensified as a threat. Worse, business are reverting to archaic Excel-based reporting when they must be utilizing more advanced supply chain mapping software that can depict the interdependencies." Indeed, with all the advancements in technology from big data and expert system to advanced analytics and the ' Web of Things' now is a fun time for business to discover the new tools that could make things simpler during COVID-19 and beyond.